Dr. Robert Malone: Fundamentals & Mechanisms of Action of Covid-19 Genetic Vaccines
Dr. Robert Malone is a doctor and scientist. His mission is to ensure vaccine safety, make sure that children are protected, stop and/or limit vaccine mandates, identify and teach about lifesaving treatments for Covid-19 and other pandemics.
This is an edited segment from the weekly live General Assembly meeting on January 31, 2022. The full General Assembly Meeting is available in our multimedia library.
Here’s what WCH members, staff, and coalition partners are saying about Dr. Malone’s presentation:
“It was amazing Robert 🙂” -Jessica Rose
“Thank you Dr Malone, you are a hero!” -Linda FM Rae
“DANKESCHÖN Dr. Malone!!!” -Dr. Maria Hubmer-Mogg
“Thanks for all you are doing Dr Malone! Big respect!” -Mark Trozzi MD
“This entire presentation has been an excellent fact check on the fact checkers.” -Emma Sron
“Thank you very much for that presentation Dr Malone” -Gio
“Thank you!! Dr. Malone!” -Interest Of Justice
“Excellent Dr Malone.” -Fahrie Hassan
“Fantastic presentation, simple breakdown, thank you!” -Sean Daly
“Thank you so much Dr Malone for everything you’re doing!” -Rob Verkerk
“Dr Malone – this was an amazing presentation. Learned a lot. Not many people understand these vaccines like you do. With these vaccines there are non-doctors (politicians and the media) promoting substances that they do not understand and misleading the public.” -Jackie Stone
[00:00:00] [00:00:32] Christof Plothe: So may I just introduce our first speaker, Dr. Robert Malone, he will be talking to us about the fundamentals and mechanisms of action of COVID-19 and genetic vaccines. I don’t think there will be any reason to introduce Dr. Malone to most of us here. Uh, uh, especially after the Joe Rogan podcast where I, my latest figure was something like 50 million listeners. [00:00:57] Um, that was a wonderful event, um, and reached an amazing amount of people. A man with a great mind, a deep scientific knowledge and an open heart. Dr. Robert Malone is the inventor of the nine original mRNA vaccine patents, which were originally filed in 1989, including both the idea of mRNA vaccines and the original proof of principle experience and RNA transfaction. [00:01:20] Dr. Malone has close to a hundred peer reviewed publications, which have been cited over 12,000 times. Since January 2020, Dr. Malone has been leading a large team focused on clinical research, design, drug development, computer modeling, and mechanisms of action for repurpose drugs of the treatment of COVID-19. [00:01:40] There are lots of things to add, but, um, as we are shorten on time as always, um, I’ll hand over to you, Dr. Malone, and thank you very much for joining us tonight. [00:01:52] Dr. Robert Malone: Thank you very much for the opportunity. An honor to present here to your growing, amazing organization. I know you have a big dreams of, for supplanting, some other non-governmental organizations that have become dysfunctional, and we’ll just leave it at that. [00:02:08] I’m really heartened to see the growth in professionalism of the team that you guys have put together and in the broader community. So thank you for the opportunity to share this with you. The goal here is not to, uh, uh, uh, I come here to bury Caesar, not to praise him. Uh, no, I, I come here to share information, which I hope will help people to get over some of the fear and trepidation that they often seem to have as they encounter this new technology. [00:02:43] So this is intended to be a non-biased presentation of, of the tech, so that folks can better understand what we’re talking about and be less prone to fear and, um, misunderstandings, uh, regarding the technology, uh, in particular, I think that we all are, are best served if we understand what we’re talking about, and we’re not, uh, focusing on red herrings or other things that [00:03:15] can distract us from, from our mission. So if we can move to the, oh, I should say, I need to put in the caveats. I serve as the president of the global COVID summit. That’s the international Alliance of physicians and medical scientists, where we have a validated list of members that’s over 17,000, uh, uh, sorry, uh, Thompson writers. [00:03:39] And, I also serve as the chief medical and regulatory officer of the unity project based in California. Unity project can be found as I showed on that first slide: unityprojectonline.com and we’re the mission of that organization is to block the imposition of these illegal mandates for children, uh, to, uh, be required to receive these experimental medical products. Illegal in my opinion, in any case. [00:04:08] So then moving to that first slide, the central dogma of biology. So it’s a diverse audience and I apologize to the physician scientists here, that I’m having to drag through this, but for the rest of us, the central dogma of biology is kind of at the root of understanding this technology. [00:04:26] And that is that DNA makes RNA and RNA makes protein. Simple stuff. And traditionally, we always thought, we often think, of the double stranded molecule DNA as the one that encodes the genetic information that makes us who we are. In the case of RNA viruses, their genome is encoded on RNA. And of course the SARS cov two is a RNA virus. [00:04:51] So there is an enzyme associated with retroviruses, which can enable RNA to be used to produce DNA. That’s called reverse transcriptase. And that’s a hot topic for people that are concerned about the potential mutagenic effects of delivering mRNA into their cells. But I’m not going to talk further about that at this point. [00:05:17] So I’m going to kind of work you from left to right. First off on the left-hand panel. What we’re showing there left-hand panel in the far right panel is kind of an enlargement of that. There are many forms of RNA. RNA is ribonucleic acid that’s, it’s just an acronym. DNA is deoxyribonucleic acid. There are various functional forms of RNA. [00:05:46] One of those is to serve as a message. You can think of it as akin to a ticker tape, if you’re old as me, many people won’t remember that. You can think of it as akin to a Pearl necklace with, uh, each bead having a bit of information, but unlike in computers that, we’re familiar with binary computers, uh, instead of only zeros and ones, we have four different bases. [00:06:11] A UGC in the case of RNA. RNAs can be used for different things. And they’re used by the cell for different things. One of them is to serve as a scaffold in a sense, uh, with some catalytic components for the ribosome, which is this little cellular machine that, uh, produces proteins. One of them is to the transfer RNA, [00:06:38] so that’s ribosomal RNA, or R RNA. One is to serve as a movable scaffold. That carries amino acids into the ribosome, and allows through base pairing the linkage of the appropriate amino acid based on the code that’s in the messenger RNA. So those are called transfer RNAs cause they transfer amino acids. [00:07:05] So that’s tRNA. And then there is the ribonucleic acid that has a message that instructs this whole symphony as to how to make a protein. And that’s the messenger RNA. So first off we don’t need to be afraid of, of this acronym, mRNA. It’s nothing spooky or mysterious. It’s merely an acronym for messenger RNA, which is one of the various forms that RNA takes. [00:07:31] Now we’re going to move on to the structure of the virus itself and a couple of key components. This is a very simplified schematic, but it’s useful. We have here highlighted the spike protein, and many of us are familiar with this. And now Moderna in the United States, as of today, has a license for producing spike vax, a vaccine, a mRNA vaccine which causes your cells to make spike protein. [00:08:00] So spike protein, as you can see from the schematic has various structural elements, including the receptor binding domain, which is the business end that enables the virus to attach to Ace2. But it’s not the only protein. There’s many other proteins associated with the virus. Both in the viral particles, [00:08:20] and when expressed, is included in envelope matrix nuclear capsid, proteins. And so you can see in this schematic, you know, roughly where they set the viruses envelopes. So it acquires lipids, uh, fats from the surface of your cells when it’s produced. And, it has the mRNA condensed. Here it’s shown as, uh, akin to a helix, such as is formed with DNA. [00:08:51] That’s a very inaccurate representation of, of what the mRNA looks like, when it’s from the virus, when it’s bound to nucleocapsid protein. But this is a rough approximation to help people understand the basics. Okay. This is the hardest of these slides to walk through and understand, but this is the real business part of the mRNA vaccine technology or mRNA delivery technology. [00:09:20] And so there’s three panels here. And since I’m speaking to Canadians, I want to give a shout out to university of British Columbia and that group there that has really led in the development of the specific lipid structures that have a nitrogen with three carbons on them. That’s a tertiary mean as opposed to the ones that I used for the original inventions, and then subsequently developed further during the nineties, which are all quaternary amines. They have four different carbons on the nitrogen. [00:09:57] The significance of that nitrogen is that it carries a positive charge, depending in the case of the, um, Peter cholas UBC, uh, technology that is a pH sensitive, positive charge. So it changes from a neutral to positive, depending on the surrounding pH in which it’s placed the, the diluid. Um, or the cellular fluid. In the case of the original work that I did, we used a quaternary amine [00:10:29] that’s always positively charged. This seems to be a significant advance that’s enabled the, uh, activity of these particles in animals. So what you see in this panel in the upper right, is a series of these various catatonic lipids, positively charged fats that are synthetic. They are not normally found in your body. [00:10:52] These are drugs, and, uh, they are membrane active. They insert themselves into your cellular membranes as part of the process that results in the RNA being transferred into your cells so that it can then be loaded onto ribosomes and used to produce protein, like we were just talking about in their prior slide. [00:11:16] So these are examples of these lipid structures. If you’re not familiar with organic chemistry, it’s probably kind of jibberish, but, uh, what matters is that these have been empirically designed. You can’t go to a computer modeling program and punch in: I want a canonic lipid that will target the liver. [00:11:38] For instance, these are, are produced synthetically by organic chemists, purified and then formulated with RNA and tested in various ways. So these are the ionizable lipids. If you look at the left part of that panel, uh, in the schematic and they’re either ionizable or in the original embodiment, they were, uh, always positively charged. [00:12:02] Now, you’ll see in that left-hand panel of the helper. Phospholipid this is typically polyethylene glycol. Um, uh, I’m sorry. Uh, this is a dialell, dialellell, Pollic D-O-P-E. Um, uh ethanolamine uh, and this is, these are lipids that when, when formulated with other lipids help form a lipids, uh, layer and are intrinsically fusogentic. That means that when the particles come in contact with your cells, the membranes from the particles will fuse with the membranes of your cells. [00:12:42] So, finally, I’ve got it: dialale phosphatidyl ethanolamine, or D-O-P-E, is a typical helper phospholipid. Then in the left, you’ll look below that. It says cholesterol. Cholesterol are often included in these formulations and in these ones that are being used for the vaccines, because it increases the fluidity of the membrane [00:13:03] that’s used to wrap the RNA. Then you see in that schematic, the MRN, and then below that is a key component that often people are confused about, lipid polyethylene glycol. So what’s happened here. Polyethylene glycol is used to create, basically, structure the water around these particles. So in a sense, it’s a little bit more like ice, but it’s a very slippery ice. That helps keep liposomes, uh, polyethylene glycol can be used to keep liposomes from being cleared in the liver so they can circulate for a long period of time. [00:13:43] But in the case of these formulations, we have a very short, uh, carbon side chain on the polyethylene glycol, such that it is able to anchor into the formulation but it becomes disassociated upon injections. So for those patients, that experience, uh, the, um, acute anaphylaxis associated with, uh, administration, sometimes that’s associated with this polyethylene glycol component. [00:14:11] Some people are sensitive to that. It’s used in many different foods. It’s generally considered to be, uh, safe. It’s used in other liposome formulations like Doxil, uh, for cancer treatments, et cetera. But in the case of these formulations, the reason it’s in there is because these complexes will aggregate quickly upon addition of the diluent. [00:14:38] The way these are prepared is the vials are shipped in a form, uh, that they’re not ready for injection. And then you have to add a saline mixture and then resuspend them, and then use them within a fairly short period of time. If you don’t do that, they aggregate, which is not a good thing for your patients because they form a large complexes that are both less active in delivering the RNA and more inflamatory. [00:15:09] So they can cause more side effects. So the lipid peg is in there to stop that aggregation process, but it isn’t firmly anchored into the particle. And so it can fall off and you can get aggregates. So that’s the key components of the formulation. And you can see in the schematic as a rough approximation. What happens is the RNA is negatively charged. [00:15:35] Remember I used the metaphor, it’s like a string of pearls and you can think of this, the rope in between each Pearl is negatively charged. And then these lipids are positively charged. So they’re driven to associate with each other, just like magnets, uh, positive and negative pole. We call it, um, ionic interactions. [00:15:55] And so when you make these mixtures, the RNA gets coated with the positively charged molecules, lipids, fats, and then those become aggregated and associated into particles. And the size of those particles are controlled through the formulation process. You can use various technology, including basically pushing the mixture through a very small orifice, which is why there’s pumps involved in producing these final formulations. [00:16:27] And that gives rise to the final product that’s injected into yourself or your patients. In the lower left panel, there’s some additional nuance here that some people, for instance, one of the scientists testifying at the recent Ron Johnson hearing, got a little crossed up over because he didn’t understand some of these fundamentals. [00:16:46] So in the upper part of that left lower panel, you see a colored strand labeled mRNA, and it has various components, a cap, the five prime UTR, a coding region, or, or open reading frame, a three-prime UTR and the poly a tail. For those that are not, you know, haven’t spent their life obsessing over these things, [00:17:09] this all seems rather mysterious. I’m going to walk you through what it is so that you, that kind of mystery is, is demystified for you. The cap at one end of the RNA, that’s the five-prime end of the RNA, is where the ribosome gets loaded. Remember we talked about ribosomes before. So the ribosome in order to get loaded onto the RNA or vice versa, depending on how you look at it, requires a, a special chemical modified nucleotide that we call the cap. [00:17:41] And that cap also protects that end of the RNA from, uh, enzymes that would chew it up, like Pac-Man from the end. That cap is followed by a stretch of RNA called the five prime untranslated region, which function is still not completely understood, but it’s known empirically that these five prime untranslated regions are essential for efficient production of protein off of a mRNA. [00:18:09] And this was one of the things that I demonstrated in my original paper. This is followed by the coding region or open reading frame. And just to say it, although, uh, the Pfizer dossier, that Biram originally captured from the Japanese regulatory authority, uh, in codes, the luciferase protein, which is a protein that makes the Firefly tail glow. [00:18:36] It has nothing to do with the devil. In the case of the, in Pfizer was allowed to use that as a surrogate for the vaccine, uh, actual vaccine product. In the vaccine product the open reading frame is what we call code on ma optimized so that it is engineered to produce as efficiently as possible [00:19:00] the spike protein and it’s actually a modified version of spike protein. We’ll go into that in a minute. The three prime untranslated region is also important and seems to interact with the five prime untranslated region in ways that aren’t completely understood, but in order to have efficient translation into protein of these mRNA sequences, optimized three prime untranslated region is necessary. [00:19:24] That’s also involved in stabilizing the RNA. And then this is followed by the poly adenyla tail, poly (A) tail. The poly (A) tail is kind of like a fuse that controls how long the RNA stays in the cell. Now that’s a caveat that’s in the normal situation. In the case of the marketed vaccines that we have in north America, the, uh, use uricells or uridines that are present in the mRNA naturally have been substituted for modified chemical compound called pseudo uridine. [00:20:01] And we really don’t know a whole lot about the stability of those in your own cells. So when you ask me the question, how long does the RNA stick around after it’s been delivered? I have to give you the “duh” I don’t know, because I haven’t seen any papers that document that response. So now we’ve walked through the structure of the RNA, and then below that, in that panel, you can see a schematic that’s really, uh, quite crude, showing the RNA sitting within one of these lipids, uh, um, the secular complexes with polyethylene glycol and its surface. [00:20:37] That’s really quite crude. On the lower right, is a better approximation in which we have the RNA coded by the positively charged lipids. And then those aggregates coated by more, uh, membrane lipids that include the polyethylene glycol on their surface. So that’s a closer approximation, but these are, when you hear about the lipid nano particles, uh, this is what we’re talking about, and yes, they are typically highly inflammatory. [00:21:05] And that’s been known for decades. Actually when I first met Katie Carrico, it was at a meeting that I had organized where I first disclosed, uh, how highly inflammatory these complexes are. The next slide: Intended Biodistribution. So the nuance here is that in the literature, based on rodent studies, there was a belief that, remember I showed you those different lipid structures, that the different lipid structures would confer targeting to different tissue sites, um, bone marrow liver, uh, and draining lymph nodes, for example, and the lipids that were chosen for these formulations were believed to have characteristics not really understood, but functionally determined that led to the RNA complexes, moving to the draining lymph nodes and delivering the RNA into antigen presenting cells in those draining lymph nodes. [00:22:03] So it was believed that this was going to be a safe process where the mRNA vaccine composed of the, that we’ve described the structure of, would be injected, and then it would drain to those lymph nodes. It would not go all over the body and it would elicit an immune response in those lymph nodes by educating B and T cells. [00:22:23] Unfortunately, that turns out not to be the case. And, we learned that through the, again, the Pfizer dossier, that Byron Bridle kindly shared with the world. So he’s a hero as far as I’m concerned. And another thing that Canadians should be proud of, uh, but that was the belief system when this was presented to the FDA and the regulatory authorities, but then the data, limited data, that was generated in road models demonstrated that that absolutely was not the case. [00:22:52] So that had been, uh, proposed to be a safety feature, but I wanted to help you to understand that, just because that things, these things empirically behave that way in mice doesn’t mean they’re going to behave that way in humans. And that seems to be the case here. I hope you’re all still with me and I haven’t put you to sleep yet with this very academic presentation. [00:23:13] This panel shows the graphic of a very simplified version of what happens with these particles. The graphic kind of flows from the upper left and then in an arc through to the upper right and center. Starting at the upper left, you have a schematic, the simplified schematic of these RNA lipid complexes, and they’re typically formulated so that they have an excess positive charge. [00:23:41] Remember I said, the fats, the synthetic fats are positively charged at, uh, the pH is that are, um, exist outside of a cell. And, uh, so what happens is that cell membranes are generally negative. These are generally positive. And so once again, they’re driven to associate by ionic interactions like two magnets and they glom onto your cell membranes. [00:24:08] And once they do that, those fusogentic and lipids like the, uh, dialayolel phosphatidyl ethanolamine that I mentioned, uh, as well as the candidate Libin structures cause these to fuse and, um, become integrated into the cell membrane of the cell that the particle has, has hit. So then the synthetic lipids become part of that cell’s outer membrane, and the RNA is, is released or disgorged through a process. It’s not really fully understood. [00:24:40] It becomes unpacked from these lipids and then, uh, gets transported to the ribosome. I’m not aware. There’s discussion about, since some of the untranslated regions are derived from sequences are related to sequences involved in, um, mitochondria there’s discussion that maybe they’re being producing protein, spike protein in mitochondria. [00:25:04] I’m not aware of mRNA targeting sequences that would cause that to happen. I think that’s another red herring, but I, you know, I haven’t seen the data one way or another about that. In any case, they do find their ways to the ribosomes that are typically arrayed along this structure called the endoplasmic reticulum. [00:25:26] And then are, as I mentioned before, they are used to produce proteins. Those proteins are spike protein that are inserted into the Lumina of the ER. And then that’s processed through the golgi apparatus where, uh, sugars are added and other things. And then once it’s produced in the golgi and processed, then those spike proteins have one of two pathways. [00:25:51] They can end up being inserted onto the membrane of the cell that is transfected as a whole protein. And then they become targets for immune response, potentially, and also can be involved in educating B and T-cells to do their business, or they can be cut up into fragments. There are, uh, proteases in the cell and virtually every protein that’s produced in the cell gets cut up into little tiny pieces and displayed on class one and/or class two major histocompatibility complex molecules, which by the way, are highly variable in humans. [00:26:27] This is a good thing that we have diversity in humans and diversity in our immune response. Those that interact with T cells and are involved in the T education program that, that produces finally T affector cells like cytotoxic, T lymphocytes. There, we got through that, um, that was a mouthful of immunology. [00:26:49] This is just another, kind of, easier version. It’s looking at the system at kind of a higher level. The cell with all of the little blebs and podocytes sticking out of it, is a crude approximation of an antigen presenting cell. There’s various types of cells that produce antigen and present it in educate T and B cells. [00:27:12] Dendritic cells are among the more potent of those, uh, monocytes and other macrophage can also do this. And there are some more fibroblasts like cells in lymph nodes that do this. So the thesis for this mechanism of action is that the RNA lipid protein complexes, I shouldn’t say, lipid nano particles interact with entered and presenting cells and transfect, or produce the protein, deliver the RNA and produce the protein and those cells. That is a gross over simplification. [00:27:44] That happens to some extent, but these particles also produce protein in a variety of other cells in your body. And we know that to be true, both from multiple research papers over the last 30 years, but also, uh, functionally with, again, the, uh, documents that Biram obtained from Pfizer. Uh, by the Japanese, but in theory, the protein is produced on these antigen presenting cells. [00:28:13] And then they educate both CD eight cytotoxic T lymphocytes, CD four helpers and B cells, and activate those to differentiate in the case of B cells to produce neutralizing antibodies. In the case of T-cells, they produce effector T cells that are able to kill infected cells. It’s important to remember that this virus doesn’t just spread in an extracellular fashion, but it also spreads directly from cell to cell by a membrane fusion event. [00:28:46] So once a single cell is infected in your body, then the virus spreads laterally across adjacent cells. It doesn’t have to get outside of a cell and therefore when it’s spreading laterally, it’s really not so susceptible to antibody interactions and blocking. Important also is that this process of B and T activation results in a population of memory cells that get parked and are able to be reactivated [00:29:18] if you encounter a similar pathogen in the future. Now that’s important. We’ll talk about that in a minute. When we talk about original antigenic sin. So with this slide, I’m just emphasizing that in addition to the mRNA technology, we have another technology that’s licensed in various Western countries, and the former Soviet union Russia has its own version of this tech. [00:29:45] This is the use of a cold virus, which happens to be a DNA virus. It’s called an adenovirus. We’ve all been infected by adenoviruses previously. Just like we’ve all had a common beta Corona viruses infecting us. Adenoviruses, as I mentioned, are DNA viruses and what’s done is to, uh, cut out sequences from those DNA viruses replace the spike protein into that DNA, and then use these to infect your cells rather than the synthetic lipid nanoparticles. [00:30:21] What matters here is that since it’s a DNA virus, the DNA does go into your nucleus. And this technology was designed originally for gene therapy purposes. And so it produces protein at a high level for a long period of time. Again, I haven’t been aware of any regulatory documents that have defined exactly where these adenoviruses go and for how long they produce the protein and how much spike protein is produced. [00:30:50] But that’s the tech. It’s otherwise very similar. It’s just a different platform for delivering the genetic information, encoding the modified spike protein. Now let’s talk a little bit about what that spike protein is. I’ve had the great pleasure of being fact-checked by Thomson Reuters repeatedly over these topics. [00:31:11] The spike protein that is produced in these vaccines is a modified spike protein. It has two proline amino acids substitutions. They’re in the S2 region, which is down the lower part. If you think of that tail, that sticking at the bottom in the lower panel which anchors the spike protein into the membrane of cells and this two proline mutations, I’m sorry Reuters, were not introduced to make this less toxic. [00:31:43] They were introduced to make it more immunogenic. And what those two proline mutations do is to make it so that the spike stays locked into a pre fusion confirmation. So it is not able in theory to trigger the fusion between cells that normally would happen with the viral infection or with the cell, the cell spread. [00:32:08] These were not introduced to make it less toxic. Various mechanisms are involved in the toxicity as spike protein. Again, I apologize Reuters, but, uh, the sciences, the science, um, and, uh, one of those mechanisms of action is that spike binds to this key regulatory protein called ACE two. It’s involved in regulation of blood pressure and many other things. [00:32:35] Receptor binding domain of spike remains intact and the rest of the core component of spike, it’s only two amino acid changes that are introduced. And, fairly large protein, globular protein, and the receptor binding domain remains intact, which means it’s still as able to bind to ACE two, the vaccine spike as the native spike. [00:33:03] And so any of those toxicities that are associated with that binding to ACE two in triggering ACE two activation remain with the spike encoded from either the virus or the vaccine. An important topic, I’m just going to give you a sidebar on this, in terms of people ask, well, if, if you’re getting spike from the vaccine and you’re getting spike from the virus, what’s the difference. [00:33:30] One key difference is that when you’re infected by the virus, it’s typically infecting the cells lining your nose and your mouth initially. And then it may migrate down into your lower lungs, although much less so with Omicron. It stays in your upper airway predominantly, which is a good thing. But what happens is you’re initially infected by a small number of particles and they gradually spread and you have a gradual increase in the level of spike protein that your body is experiencing. [00:34:01] And of course at the same time, your body is mounting an immune response and spinning up its capabilities. So there’s kind of a dance occurring between your immune system and the virus that results in a gradual escalation of the level of spike with infection and a gradual escalation of your immune response. In the case of the mRNA or the Adenovirus vaccines, [00:34:26] what you’re having is a large amount of this protein being produced in a tissue site that it normally would not be produced in. And then it’s being released and circulating in your body. We know that because of the Harvard and Brigham and women’s study and nurses early on in the outbreak, when the vaccines were first being tested, that showed that the cleaved free spike circulates in the blood for a very long period of time, upwards of a month in many patients that is detectable. [00:35:01] This requires a sensitive biomedical, uh, biochemical essay and it has limits of, of detection. So we’ve talked a little bit about spike protein and its structure and the specific mutations that are incorporated for purposes of generating the vaccines. And then the last thing I want to mention about spike is, for those of you that are Fishermen or Fisher persons, I guess I should say, if you know the structure of a trouble hook, that you might use with the bass plug, I think I can talk to this with Canadians, or you’re going and catching stripers, [00:35:39] you may be familiar with the trouble hook. Spike is a trimor of proteins and it assumes a similar formation. So in the lower right aspect of that lower panel that the arrow points to, you’re looking at the top of the spike. You’re looking down the barrel of spike and you can see it has these three lobes that stick out. [00:36:00] Those are akin to the three barbs on a trouble hook. And the difference between the kind of the, where the treble hook metaphor breaks down is that each of these three lobes that sticks out like that is actually on a hinge. It’s flexible, and those are the receptor binding domain. So you can think of this as kind of a three lobed book structure that grabs onto the ACE two receptor when the virus hits your cells or when the free spike protein potentially hit SES two. [00:36:31] The thing I really like to emphasize with this panel is the size of the antibody relative to the size of the spike. And so if you look at that upper center panel, the part that’s kind of pink and red, that’s a space filling diagram of an antibody that is matched to the thing that it’s touching, which is a space filling model of the spike protein. [00:36:56] So you can see that in terms of the size, if you’re thinking that there’s hundreds of antibodies that are binding to spike, that’s just not possible because they’re about the same size. So with any one spike protein, you might get one or a very small number of antibodies interacting with it. In the upper right panel, [00:37:16] what you see is a schematic that shows the receptor binding domain. That’s the part that’s highly colored with purple and yellow and green, and those are all identified antibody binding domains that will interfere with the ability of spike to bind to cells. There’s another little antibody binding domain down near the bottom [00:37:36] that’s in blue there. And that one is broadly neutralizing. So antibodies directed against that are likely to be active against Omicron or the original alpha variant, et cetera. Those are very difficult to generate. In many people they will not produce antibodies against that target because it’s kind of hidden by the virus in terms of the structure. [00:38:00] In the left lower, we have a more colorized version showing, as we’re looking down the barrel of spike or looking at it sideways. And in that middle lower panel, you can see what we call a ribbon diagram that shows that same thing. So we have these three lobes that stick out that include the receptor binding domains and this central channel that is associated with the triggering of the fusion events. [00:38:29] This I’m getting now towards the end of the presentation, where it’s slide 12 of 15 and here, we’re talking a little bit about T cell immunity. What matters here. What I’d like to emphasize is the schematic in the panel in the lower left, the immune response against associated the memory cells associated with people [00:38:56] that are not exposed to COVID, the SARS-CoV-2, but have been exposed to prior beta coronaviruses. So that’s the virtually all of us, we all had preexisting immunity against various proteins that are listed here. Nonstructural spike in M proteins that are from an immune system basis. They’re very similar to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. [00:39:23] And so we had memory cells from those prior infections. Remember I talked about memory cells. So those memory cells that were parked, when you first get exposed to COVID-19 virus, the SARS-CoV-2 that causes the disease COVID-19, that causes those memory cells to expand and start producing effector cells. [00:39:46] And so initially in your infection, if you haven’t been previously infected or have not received the vaccine, what you’ll predominantly do is generate both B and T responses that are designed for a prior virus. And so they are partially effective, but really often act in a way that interferes with any new antibodies that might be more specific for SARS-CoV-2. [00:40:15] This is a phenomenon that’s well-known in immunology and in your daily life, you all understand that the things that you’ve been exposed to, the situations you’ve been exposed to, will bias how you respond to new, um, new events. So for instance, just taking a slightly sardonic point of view, my having been exposed to a hostile press over the last two years has made it so that I’m very wary about interacting with any reporters, for some reason. [00:40:46] And, uh, that might be a good thing, or it might be a bad thing. Maybe I would be interacting with a reporter that would have actually done a good job and been friendly. So our prior exposures can bias our future responses. And that’s true of your immune system. If you understand that you now understand original antigenic sin, the antigens and viruses that you’ve been exposed to previously will bias how you respond to things in the future. [00:41:16] And by the way, that’s also true with a mismatched vaccine, which is what we have right now. You are immune to reporters now, uh, not completely free, but getting there. In the upper panel there, what you’re seeing is an example, a schematic of the types of immune responses that are generated with natural immunity after exposure and infection by SARS-CoV-2. [00:41:40] And you’ll see that it’s demonstrating there that you get a broad immune response, both antibodies and effector T cells to a variety of different proteins. And this is one of the issues with the vaccines is that they’re generating these genetic vaccines that we have will elicit both a T N N effector in antibody response, [00:42:03] but those responses are not mucosal because you’re not encountering the antigen through your normal mucosal route. And, they are biased only towards the spike protein and they’re biased towards the spike protein from a virus that’s no longer circulating because they’re mismatched vaccines. [00:42:26] So the combination of these effects and the problems with original antigenic sin, I believe are what’s driving the poor durability of the vaccines. So that’s a huge difference between the natural immunity and the vaccine induced immunity is the natural immunity as much broader, longer lasting and against many different antigens, as opposed to the single antigen. [00:42:50] Now I’m trying to move quickly. I have just a couple more slides. The next slide emphasizes this point that the natural immunity is against up to fifty four different proteins, both nonstructural and structural. Whereas the vaccine immunity is against only one protein, the spike protein. Then the next panel is just kind of a wrap up of a key point that I believe strongly in. [00:43:18] And I believe there’s over 140 references that support the thesis that natural immunity is more protective and more effective. And, you can find a very nice article about that in the brownstone Institute library of articles. I just wanted to emphasize here that, in my opinion, it is essential that we recognize that natural immunity is more effective, that we should give allowance for those that have recovered, which have better immune responses than those elicited by a mismatched vaccine. [00:43:55] They’re more durable, more effective, less likely to be evaded by a viral evolution. And furthermore, those that have generated natural immunity are susceptible to greater numbers in a severity of adverse events if they are subjected to genetic vaccination after generating natural immunity. [00:44:18] So with that, I have sucked up, um, the better part of an hour, I guess. I apologize for that. Thank you for your time and attention. I’m afraid I’m going to have to, uh, buzz out now. And I don’t have time for questions because I have to go give testimony to a judge advocate general here, uh, on Hawaii about some of the issues associated with the licensure packages and the adverse events that have been observed with these vaccines. [00:44:45] But I hope this was helpful. And if, if it has resulted in you having less anxiety and about the technology and a better understanding, then I’ve succeeded. [00:44:58] Dr. Kat Lindley: Thank you, Dr. Malone for your presentation. And if possible, we will email you some questions from you to maybe answer. We can send them over to affiliates and members to look over later. [00:45:10] Pierre Kory: Hi Kat, it’s Pierre. [00:45:13] Dr. Kat Lindley: Hi Pierre, [00:45:13] thank you for coming in. [00:45:15] Pierre Kory: I’m here on a Hawaii with Robert. We also have to give testimony. So I just wanted to, to just pop in and say a couple of words, is that okay? [00:45:24] Dr. Kat Lindley: Yes, please. Go ahead. [00:45:27] Pierre Kory: So I think I was asked to just talk about what’s going on in Canada and the trucker’s, um, I cannot believe what is going on. [00:45:38] I mean, I just love it. The truckers are showing up. They’re making a splash. People are paying attention, but at the same time, the world has gone mad. The truckers are saving Canada, the collapsed, failed totalitarian state of Canada, and the truckers are showing up. I just love it. I think there’s, there’s, there’s some plans to get a convoy of American truckers to meet them at the border. [00:45:59] And I hope that happens. Um, just, you know, you guys know me, I just, it’s just absurd. I can’t verify this, but I was told the other night that CNN, when they covered the convoy in Canada, they said that it was a protest against icy roads in Canada. Are you guys all laughing? Please laugh with me. They are protesting icy roads in Canada. [00:46:25] Dr. Jennifer Hibberd: You’re right. It was ridiculous. They weren’t ready for it, right. [00:46:30] They weren’t ready for this. [00:46:30] Pierre Kory: Hey Jennifer, I’m so sorry about your icy roads in Canada. I’d never knew such thing could happen. What, what a catastrophe, but I just wanted to say I’m with you guys. You guys are the best. It’s not just the truckers. It’s the Canadian COVID care Alliance and it’s a bunch of other groups and, and you know what, the pictures are as loud as words and maybe even louder. [00:46:53] And I just hope everyone keeps speaking up, speaking out and, uh, you know, we’re here to do the same with all you guys. And so you have our full support, man. Uh, oh my gosh, Canada, Canada. You guys need our help, man. You’re your worst than United States, but, uh, we’ll, we’ll, we’ll, we’ll bring you along. We’ll we’ll bring it to the light. [00:47:14] Definitely. [00:47:16] Dr. Kat Lindley: Thank you for your message. And thank you for joining us and thank you again, Dr. Malone. I think he is still there and we will email him the questions and then post the answers to all of those questions. [00:47:30] Dr. Robert Malone: Thanks Kat. Um, be good and, uh, stay strong. [00:47:35]